School dropout is the act of leaving school, that is, dropping out of school for any reason.
This social problem, which is unfortunately common in Brazil, mainly affects high school students.
Causes of School Dropout
The causes vary according to the level of education. In the early years (elementary school), the distance from school associated with lack of school transportation, or who can take and pick up the child, is the main cause.
In high school, however, the lack of interest becomes one of the main causes, which results from the fact that, besides the content being exaggerated, it is decontextualized, an opinion that is shared not only by students but also by teachers.
The economic situation is another factor that strongly influences dropout. To help parents, who sometimes even forbid their children to continue their studies, or even to have some financial autonomy, students start working without completing their studies.
There are those who choose to reconcile work and school activities, but failing, decide to prioritize work and end up leaving school.
The social aspect has its weight in this matter. The difficulty in getting to school makes it imminent to give up continuing education. This is most evident in rural areas.
Much discussed in recent times, bullying also often makes students refuse to go to school.
Ivan Cabral’s Charge Shows School Dropout Problem
Consequences of dropout
Students who drop out often have low self-esteem, which makes their personal and professional relationships difficult.
Entering the labor market becomes more difficult, and the quality of the services provided is leveled down as well as their pay.
All of this generates a strong sense of demotivation, which further consolidates social inequality in Brazil.
School Dropout Data
According to Inep – Anísio Teixeira National Institute for Educational Studies and Research, according to the School Census conducted between 2014 and 2015, the dropout rate is as follows:
1st) 1st grade of high school – 12.9%
2nd) 2nd grade of high school – 12.7%
3rd) 9th grade of elementary school – 7.7%
4th) 3rd grade of high school – 6.8%
High School leads with 11.2% of students out of school, and Pará is the state that has the highest dropout rate in Brazil. In this state, 16% of high school students were evasive at the time of the survey.
In 2013, UNDP – United Nations Development Program indicated that among the 100 countries with the highest HDI (Human Development Index) , Brazil had the 3rd highest dropout rate. The 1st and 2nd highest rates are from Bosnia and Herzegovina (26.8%) and the Caribbean islands of Saint Kitts and Nevis (26.5%).
The data presented by UNDP, however, were questioned by Inep. Inep claims that, besides being differentiated between countries, which led to lagged data, the research did not consider 9 years in elementary school, but 8.
Is there a solution to dropout?
Teachers need to meet and evaluate students trying to detect if there are students within the student body prone to this situation. This is a school duty.
Detecting the problem is the first step in finding ways to solve it. The truth is that everyone needs encouragement, and not only that, but greater attention should be given to those who already have the characteristics that lead to dropout.
Having detected the problem, it is necessary to evaluate the way of acting: resorting to the family to seek a joint solution, for example, after all, the absence of children in school is not always known by parents.
Second, when school efforts with the family are not enough, it is time for the Guardianship Council or the Public Prosecution Service to be activated.
Active School Search
Unicef campaign poster
Active School Search is a platform that seeks to alleviate this problem. The platform is part of a Unicef initiative that has some partnerships. It’s called “Out of School Can’t!”
Through it, a group of professionals follows the absences of the students. From this, a follow-up is developed that aims to make them return to school.