In our current political scenario, very hear talk about socialism, communism, socialist, communist and the like. However, at various times these terms are used wrongly and there, ‘ve ever seen: the whole world is confused!
Therefore, we have brought an explanation that facilitates the understanding of the terms, but before we get to know a little bit more about what is socialism:
What is socialism?
Basically, socialism is a theory of political thinking and economic that preaches the extinction of social classes and the State, giving power to the working classes. The basic concept of the socialist* is based on equality for all members of society.
Socialist meaning: is the person who supports this kind of system of organization of society; socialist means that is relative to socialism.
How did the socialism?
The origin of socialism date of the end of the EIGHTEENTH century, at the time of the First Industrial Revolution, as a form of opposition to capitalism.
Capitalism began to expand uncontrollably, dividing the society in proletariados without the goods they were producing for the bourgeoisie, the all-controlled. The schemes of work were cruel: the workers were not entitled to rest, to security, and from children to the elderly provided his labor. It was the typical “rich get richer and poor get poorer”.
Thus, the Industrial Revolution caused massive social and economic transformations, leading intellectuals to develop the socialist theory, according to which there would be no more inequality in society.
How it works the socialism?
In the first place, you should know that there is more than one type of socialist system. In general, when one speaks of socialism, relate to the ideas of Karl Marx – the current marxist – to be the most popular, but will comment briefly on the theory of current utopian as well:
Socialism utopian x scientific socialism
The precursors of the ideas socialists have generated for your current the label of socialism-utopian, a term coined later by Karl Marx, while he and Friedrich Engels called themselves scientific socialists, the creators of scientific socialism. After all, in that these two currents policies differ?
1. O socialismo utópico
Para o socialismo utópico, as classes mais pobres deveriam ter melhores condições intelectuais, morais e físicas, o que resultaria em benefícios na melhoria de vida não só deles, mas também das classes mais abonadas. Nessa corrente, o Estado ainda interferiria fortemente na economia e não haveria o fim do capitalismo.
Charles Fourier and Robert Owen were also the socialists of the current utopian and both have proposed the creation of community within the capitalist society. However, according to Fourier, there could be differences in income, since they were small; to Owen, everyone should live equally.
Fourier was never able to put into practice their theory. Owen managed to, but for a short time: if it does not supervisionasse the community, everyone fought. So, was your theory.
Socialism utopian was so named and criticized by Marx because they had had ideas of a new society, but not to instruments and methods for its actual implementation.
2. The scientific socialism
Created in the NINETEENTH century, is known for marxism on account of its key thinkers: Friedrich Engel and Karl Marx. According to them, the only way to end the exploitation of man according to a social hierarchy would be to extinguish capitalism. How this could happen?
Revolution by the proletariat. So that the poorer classes could rise to power and end up with the classes and social inequalities, the communists ultimately would be achieved.
Communism and socialism: is there a difference?
According to Karl Marx, socialism is a step that must be passed to achieve the communism.
While in socialism there would be a spirit of cooperation and equality in relation to the production and distribution of goods, in communism there would be the full property of the goods produced by each worker, being an organization system substitute of capitalism, where the majority produces for the one who is above in the social hierarchy.
What was the Paris Commune?
To understand what was the Paris Commune it is important to introduce the historical context:
In 1871, France was defeated in Franco-Prussian War. The rulers of France and Prussia signed a peace agreement, however, this agreement was favourable to Prussia, and, therefore, the French workers revolted against the government.
The Commune was established when the working class, along with the National Guard, seized power in Paris. This was the first time they tried to deploy a socialist government.
The representatives of the Commune, followed the various strands of socialist and had as main objective to improve the conditions of work and life of workers, taking as a basis the following goals:
1. Establishment of a minimum wage;
2. Requirement of free education;
3. The end of inequality between men and women;
4. Separation of Church and State with the establishment of secularism;
5. Decrease in hours worked.
Ironically, the countries that were previously at war (France and Prussia) joined together to fight the advance of the movement, overturning the Commune of Paris, just 72 days after their initial spark.
Deployment of the socialist regime in the USSR: the socialism in real
The Paris Commune was the first deployment attempt of the socialist government, and was not the last. In the TWENTIETH century, Russia adopted the system, and later joined by the other nations forming the Soviet Union.
Vladimir Lenin was responsible for the fall of the monarchy of the country to lead a revolution, defending the socialist system, in particular the current marxist. However, the ancient rulers caused a civil war that destroyed the country and, thus, some principles of socialism had to be abandoned during the reconstruction of the same.
Socialism real received this name because it was the first time that entire countries have deployed the socialist regime and, in addition, lasted for a good period of time, different from the Paris Commune and of some of the socialist theories that evencame out of the paper.
Socialist countries – socialist: countries that have implemented
Since the TWENTIETH century that the socialists try to implement the political system in different countries. Currently, some claim they have a system based on principles of socialism, however scholars refute this theory, claiming that there are no socialist nations, because even in countries that consider themselves to be so, there is the presence of the State, which represents the class of workers and the influence of capitalism in the economic sphere.
Anyway, these are the countries that follow socialist principles:
• Cuba: since 1959, the search for equality and centralization of state services, but provides strong evidence of capitalism, especially in the area of tourism;
• China: has the political structure of socialist and capitalist economy;
• North korea: while South Korea follows the principles of capitalist, North Korea presents the socialist system. However, though there is a political control, there is also the increase of privatisation;
• Vietnam: presents a structure similar to that of China, with the political principles of socialist and economic principles of capitalist.
After both socialism and capitalism, the head comes to give a node! Let’s understand a little more the differences between these systems:
Socialism and capitalism: the main differences
There are three basic divisions that differentiate the two types of system: society, property and economy.
1. Society: in capitalism, there are social classes, while the current socialist supports the extinction of classes, making the egalitarian society;
2. Property: capitalism advocates that the means of production are private property, for example, the industries; socialism advocates a collective ownership for these cases, or in other words, all work for a common good;
3. Economy: finally, privatization is something related to capitalism, while the seizure is related to socialism. In the privatization, who commands the economy are private companies; in shape, are the public that they command.
Socialism: – socialism summary
In short, socialism is a political theory that preaches the equality of the members of a society from the extinction of the hierarchy and social classes. It is considered socialism a step that must be exceeded in order that the communism is established.
Some attempts to deploy this political regime have already been made, however, even the countries that today if autodeclaram socialist to feature traits capitalists, in particular in the economic sphere.