The Modernism in brazil was a movement of artistic and cultural , that brought together several artists unhappy with the fact the brazilian art does not engage in dialogue with the culture of the country. The movement was born out of the excitement of the artists with the innovations of the avant-garde european uk with the desire to do a mix of cultures. The peak was the Week of Modern Art, in 1922, where the modernists had artistic manifestations with concepts typically brazilian. Want to know more about what was the brazilian modernism? Check out the following.
The modernist movement in Brazil was born out of the dissatisfaction with the rigidity in form and content of literary styles, such as the parnasianismo, whose characteristics are the vocabulary, the rhymes and the rhythms as well far-fetched. Writers, artists, painters and musicians wanted to make a culture that articulated with the Brazil, that is, to break with the old aesthetic standards in europe and the classical art of the brazilian. The inspiration of the artists of the movement came from the travel of these to Europe, and the excitement with artistic manifestations, such as surrealism and cubism.
The First World War had influence on brazilian modernism. The delays in the economic and political revealed in the conflict and the protests and labor strikes have hit the modernists. They were also of the eye in the ferment of social and artistic life of Europe and brought the reflection to the field that had the power of change: the art.
However, this discontent manifested itself before the modernism. In the works of the period called pre-modernism, we already see criticism of the classical literature and the use of a language more formal. Monteiro Lobato was one of the most famous authors of the pre-modernism. Important to stress that the pre-modernism is not considered to be school literary, as there is no dialogue in this period.
Characteristics of modernism
The brazilian modernism, he worked with six concepts: break with the aesthetics of european classical, freedom of form and content, informal language, use of language, thematic nationalist and theme everyday. However, the aim of the movement was not only to change the way of doing art in Brazil. The modernists proposed a language are more critical in relation not only to art but also to life in society. Modernism in Portugal, originated in 1915 with the release of the Magazine Orpheu, also aimed at the renewal of the art. There were three phases:
- Cults of orpheus, or the Generation of Orpheu: 1915 to 1927;
- Presencismo or Generation of Presence: 1927 to 1940;
- Neorealism: 1940 to 1947.
Modernism in Brazil
Defined by Di Cavalcanti as “the week of scandals in the literary and artistic, to get the stirrups in the belly of the burguesiazinha paulista”, The week of Modern Art was the pinnacle of the modernist movement in brazil. Held from 13 to 18 February of 1922, the event discussed the new directions of brazilian art, was organized by Mário and Oswald de Andrade, Paulo Prado, Guilherme de Almeida, and Godofredo Silva Telles. Were they responsible for the presentation of the idea and approach of artists. The poet Manuel Bandeira also participated in the Week of 22 forming with Mário and Oswald de Andrade, the “triad modernist”, the trio that defined the concepts of brazilian literature.
The opening event was a lecture by the writer Graça Aranha, titled “The aesthetic emotion of the Modern Art”. The second day was a lecture by the writer and plastic artist, Menotti Del Picchia, and presentation of the poem The Frogs, written by Manuel Bandeira and proclaimed by Ronald Carvalho. The maestro Heitor Villa Lobos also participated in the Week of 22 on the third day of the event.
The Week of Modern Art had the support of São Paulo governor Washington Luis. The justification was that a large part of those involved in the event belonged to the families of the “politics of coffee with milk”, where producers of são paulo coffee growers and miners of milk alternated in the presidency of Brazil. In the ward of the non-supporters, Monteiro Lobato was the main voice against it.
The first Phase of Modernism
Call “Stage Hero”, lasted from 1922 to 1930, and its objective was the dissemination of the concepts of modernist. The main discussions were the critical stance of the past and culture, the elimination of the “complex mutt” and the increased self-esteem national, all of this to rebuild the brazilian culture. The big names of this phase were:
- Mário de Andrade
- Oswald de Andrade;
- Manuel Bandeira;
- Menotti Del Picchia;
- Guilherme de Almeida;
- Alcântara Machado;
- Ronald de Carvalho;
- Raul Bopp.
The launch of the magazine Klaxon propelled the dissemination of the ideals of modernism. The cultural movements of The Pau Brazil, whose characteristic was the poetry critic of the brazilian history and appreciation of the national culture; the Anthropophagy, which used the ritual cannibalist indigenous to defend that devorássemos the european culture to strengthen the artistic scene, while maintaining our identity and the Green-Amarelismo and the Tapir, cultural movements with nationalistic ideas ufanistas with a touch of nazifacismo were the main events of the First Phase of Modernism.
The second Phase of Modernism
Known as the “Phase of Consolidation”, the second phase of modernism uses the regionalism and nationalism in prose fiction. Other novelties were the urban romance, the romance of the poetic-metaphysical and narrative surrealist. This phase was from 1930 to 1945 and represents the coming of age of brazilian poetry. The prominent names of the Second Phase are:
- Poetry: Carlos Drummond de Andrade, Cecília Meireles, Jorge de Lima, Murilo Mendes and Vinicius de Moraes;
- Prose: Graciliano Ramos, José Lins do Rego, Érico Veríssimo, Rachel de Queiroz, Dionélio Machado and Jorge Amado.
The third Phase of Modernism
Called “Post-Modernist” the third phase of modernism was from 1945 to 1960 for some scholars. However, there are those who say that it was from 1945 to 1980, while other scholars argue that this phase lasts until today. The prose is the main genre of the third stage in the thematic urban, regional and intimate. The authors Clarice Lispector, João Cabral de Melo Neto, João Guimarães Rosa formed the “Generation of 45”, but the writers Ariano Suassuna, Lygia Telles and Mário Quintana also stood out.