What is Fascism?

Fascism was a political line and ideological that spread through Europe at the beginning of the century XX. originated in Italy from the ideas of Benito Mussolini and having as background a series of ideologies extremists that were being produced and popularized in Europe. Fascism is a form of government that is radical, authoritative and ultranacionalista. The ideal of the fascist was the unification of the country through a totalitarian State that would keep constant surveillance under the citizens.

Fascism symbol

This characteristic of constant surveillance under the citizens of the republic of Ancient Rome has made Benito Mussolini chose as a symbol of your government, a fasces. The term fascism has its origin in the Latin fasceswhich was a bundle of sticks and an axe tied together. This object was loaded by a public official, called a Lictor in ancient Rome. The Lictor was at the forefront of the judges of the Republic. These magistrates were the trials and perpetravam the punishments that were applied on site by the Lictors. The penalties could be even death.

This symbol of several sticks stuck in a beam also has the representation of force by the union. A bundle of sticks is not, in any way, easily broken, unlike a stick alone, which can be broken with little effort. This was one of the ideals of the thinking of the fascist, the union of the whole population through the establishment of a powerful State, and extremely hard.

What is fascist?

The party of the then new form of government that had been taking shape in Italy was called a fascist.

The accuracy, currently, virtually no one calls himself a fascist. This is because the ideas that underlie this form of government are repudiable both by partisans of the right and the left.

Currently, some political movements use the term fascist, in most of the times so wrong, as if they would make reference to someone who wants to impose his ideas or to prevent the freedom of a group or a minority policy. In most cases, the cry “Fascist!” is thrown at anyone who expresses ideas that are opposite to those of the issuer referred to protest.

Characteristics of fascism

There are at fascism’s elements of both political positions. It is difficult for the scholars manage to find fascism within the range of political ideologies that we know as Left and Right. Still, the own Mussolini, on a certain occasion, expressed that his government was right. However, on another occasion, he said that these issues of positioning ideological should not be taken into consideration, calling the terms “right, left and centre” terminology empty.

Fascism has very peculiar characteristics, and that can resemble some forms of government, totalitarian or dictatorial that exist in the world until the days of today, as is the case of Cuba, Venezuela, China and North Korea.

One of the characteristics of fascism is the idea that it is a necessary cultural renewal from the self-determination of the people, which is secular and modern.

There should be created a State is authoritarian and nationalistic, totally away from the traditional principles. This State has a positive view of violence, of war, with the goal of territorial expansion.

Fascism is openly anti-capitalist and, at the same time, declares himself anti-communist. Fascism is not conservative, in the sense that it does not have to compromise with the standards of the conservative society.

There is, in fascism, a tendency to militarization, which has the goal of controlling the population. There is a single party that has military features, and their intervention in society is militarized. The State is fascist and very much values the aesthetic, the creation of large monuments and symbols seeking to empower and mobilise an emotional involvement deep with the State. The involvement romantic of the population with the State has the objective to control and mobilize the masses.

To promote the above-mentioned cultural renewal, fascism imposes great value to youth, enhancing the conflict between the generations in order to make possible to call this transformation and the consequent consolidation of the new culture.

The leader of the State fascist is charismatic, has the characteristics of a Super Man, able to take the State to great achievements. But at the same time is authoritative.

Fascism in Italy

Fascism emerged in Italy after the end of the First World War. Bento Mussolini founded the fascist movement in 1919.

At the end of the First World War, Italy was in a situation very critical, there were many debts foreign with the United States and England. Italy suffered with the lack of food and also with the high rate of unemployment. It was a country almost totally destroyed.

In this context, emerged Benito Mussolini, who was born in 1883 and died in 1945. His involvement in Italian politics began with an emphasis on socialist, and a consciousness of nationalism, very strong. In addition to these features, Mussolini was very much supported by the Italian trade unions. From then on he changed his ideas to a prospect much more totalitarian and authoritarian government.

In 1919, Mussolini organized the so-called Fascios Combat, which was a militia that was said to antissocialista and attacked both the liberals and the socialists. Basically attacking anyone and everyone who opposed your ideas to totalitarian.

In 1921, emerged the fascist party. This was a key moment for the Italian fascism, because it is from this time that the party gained representation. Italy was a monarchy parliamentary, and the party of Mussolini managed to elect 31 members in 1922. These deputies began to create a series of laws that supported a totalitarian regime.

Mussolini, in the year 1922, he organized the March On Rome. On this occasion, the movement demanded that the then King of Italy, Victor Manuel III, I give the power to Bento Mussolini so that he would establish a new government. The king agreed with the requirement and, until the year 1925, Bento Mussolini consolidated its position as a leader and, consequently, consolidated his power.

Fascism counted with the support very strong of the Italian middle class, the class this that supported more by fear, and by constraint than willingly. Having a country ruined, before having to Mussolini who promised to rebuild the nation that does not have anything, as it was before his rise to power.

On the basis of a lot of propaganda and advertising, began a program to rebuild the economy that was far more effective in the northern part of Italy, in the region south of that country had, since the 1880s, the large wave of immigration to America, especially to the United States.

In 1935 Italy, under the command of Mussolini, invaded Ethiopia, which caused a great malaise by the international part of the great world powers. In 1936, the fascist party made an alliance with Hitler, the leader of the Nazi party in Germany. Formed the so called ” Axis Rome-Berlin, strengthening the ties between Germany and Italy, since both had the same ideology, and similar policy.

This alliance and, consequently, the expansion of national socialism in Europe was one of the most important elements that led to the beginning of the Second World War.

Fascism in Brazil

In Brazil, the National Socialist German Workers had the purpose of disseminating the nazi ideology among the German who lived in Brazil. Brazil had received, in the decades of the 1920s and 1930s, a great wave of immigration from that country.

The germans who emigrated to Brazil during these decades they still had a very strong relationship with Germany, unlike immigrants who came to Brazil at the end of the 1800’s. These descendants of germans, who first came to Brazil were mostly farmers. The germans of this second wave of immigration were more concentrated in the urban centres, and belonged to a business class that I already had an affinity with the nazi regime of Germany.

This party was not even enough to be registered in the Electoral Justice, since it was not part of the strategy of the party to compete in elections, just disclose and keep this one arm of nazism among the germans who lived here. The Brazilian government also didn’t bother with the party’s presence, until the beginning of the military dictatorship in Brazil, when the party became illegal, as well as any other group or association of political and ideological abroad.

Although insignificant, the National Socialist Party of German Workers was the largest nazi party existing outside of nazi Germany.

The Action Integralista Brasileira was a political movement that was much more aligned with fascist ideology the Italian. Despite this, this movement was more inspired by the lusitanian integralism, which was a political movement in Portugal.

There were a series of clashes and ideological between the PEOPLE and the Brazilian Communist Party, reflecting, in a way, the rivalry between fascism and communism in Europe.

The Action Integralista Brasileira was founded by Plinio Salgado in 1932. Plínio salgado came to be one of the favourite candidates for the presidency of Brazil in 1937. The party only lasted 5 years, being extinct along with all other political groups due to the installation of the New State under the leadership of Getúlio Vargas.