Fake news means “false news”. Are the news, does not represent the reality, but that are shared on the internet as if it were true, mainly through social networks.
Typically, the goal of a fake news is to create a controversy around a situation or person, contributing to the denegrimento of your image. By having a content extremely dramatic, compelling and controversial, the fake news tend to attract a lot of attention of the masses, especially when these are devoid of critical sense.
Thus, the content fake can act as a “weapon” illegal against something. In the political sphere, for example, the false news are used with the aim of “tarnishing” the reputation of a particular candidate, making you lose potential voters.
How to identify fake news?
Because of the ease with which information can be created and shared on the internet, it is essential that the user has a high critical sense when faced with any type of content.
It may seem difficult to identify fake news, but by following some basic steps it is easy to know if the analyzed information is true or not.
Read the full content
One of the most common types of fake news is when the title of the news is presented so disconnected with the rest of the information. Unfortunately, many people share content on social networks, for example, without reading the whole text and, therefore, are to spread ideas totally misleading about what actually occurred.
Check the source
False news are poor sources. When the information does not contain journalistic elements basic, such as the reference of what is being said, for example, the truthfulness of the text becomes questionable.
Check out the authors
Another tip is to check the identity of the authors of the text and search for a history of jobs that have already been made by these people. In many cases the authors of a fake news can be fake, so in case there is no indication of who wrote the information, the probability that it is a fake news story is high.
Search for other sources
When we receive any information we should not rely solely on the first source of news. The ideal is to search for other vehicles of communication credible and verify that the content was also published, and what information is contained in the different texts.
Check out the publication date of the news
It may be that the information is true, but this is to be used outside of their original context. So, before you share a news story, for example, it is important to check the date it was published.
Critical sense on the alert
The most important is to have the ability to question the “truths”, not accepting everything as if it were absolutely real simply because you have read on the internet”.
Fake news and the “post-truth”
Post-truth is a neologism created to name the social phenomenon developed on the internet, where fake news (fake news) are considered to be truths due to its massive diffusion.
The term “post-truth” was voted the Word of the Year in 2016 by Oxford dictionary. The post-truth was defined as the idea that a concrete fact has less significance or influence of that “appeals to emotion and personal beliefs.
This means that, according to the concept of post-truth, it becomes more important to believe that something is true (even though it is not) than what actually is true.
Thus, the use of the prefix “post” refers to the idea that the concept of truth does not have the same meaning as in the past.
Types of fake news
The fake news are created by different motivations and, depending on these, they can be classified in 7 main types of fake news:
Satire or parody
Usually do not have the intention to cause harm. Tend to be present in sites of comedy and can be easily identified as fake.
Are when the images, the title or headline doesn’t match the rest of the content of the news. This kind of fake news is done due to a bad policy, journalism or for the profit of a particular site.
In the latter case, the titles appeal are created to catch the attention of people to click on your site (clickbait), only for the owners of the page can earn money with viewing advertisements that are in the articles, for example.
Is the classic content that features false information. Can be used in various situations, especially with a character party, how to influence policy or strategy of advertising.
In this case the information of the news is totally true, but is being used outside of its original context. That is, it may be a old news that is used as if it were recent, for example.
This type is characterized by use of statements that were supposedly made by sources true, when in reality they never came to give such statements.
It is one of the types of false news more complex to analyze. In this case the content that is displayed is true, but the person who wrote constructs the text in a way able to manipulate the audience less attentive.
Is a content type that is perverse. It is 100% false, that is, the entire text was invented with the purpose of causing disinformation, deceive people, and, consequently, cause harm.
Consequences of Fake News
The spread of the fake news can lead to disastrous consequences and tragic. People can be unjustly punished for acts they have not committed, and even wars can be declared to be due to dissemination of false news, for example.
To avoid that the fake news will continue to cause great damage to the social and political, some preventive measures and punishment are being applied by the major digital platforms, such as Facebook, Twitter and Google. In addition, intensify the projects of laws that aim to guarantee a control against the propagation of false information on social networks.