What is Culture?

Culture is a word that, until the EIGHTEENTH Century, when it came the movement known today as the Enlightenment, from France and spreading through the known world, had only the sense of cultivation. It was the culture of the grape, wheat and other cereals. The philosophers of the Enlightenment, however, decided to consider the word in a broader sense, placing it among the most important of the vocabulary, bringing now the sense of civilization, namely, the large complex that brings together the human knowledge.

From there, the culture started to also mean knowledge, customs, education, development, behavior, morals, beliefs and morals, making it almost an ideal of the elite thinker: how much more cultured she were a man, the more knowledge he had.

The word culture comes from the Latin “colere”, which means “to cultivate”. Still today she carries also, in this sense, when it comes to agriculture, namely, the culture of the fertile soil. Then, we refer to the culture of rice, to the culture of the bean, the soybean culture, and other.

You can also bring other meanings, depending on its placement in the expressions. In medicine, for example, we have the culture of bacteria, which is nothing but the creation of bacteria in the laboratory to studies in the search for cures and vaccines.

Still we can refer to the culture distinguishing it to a certain people or region of the planet. The bahian culture is a specific way of life of the people, which is different from the culture of minas gerais, which in turn also is not equal to the culture of são paulo. Coming out of the regions, we can understand the Spanish culture as the customs of the people, or americans, or any other people of the Earth.The culture of each country or region has a direct influence of the people who there inhabit, there are hundreds or even thousands of years, and will be adapting to each new generation, accompanying also the skills common to each human group. A factor that updates independent of any law: the law does not make culture, but culture has the power to create the law.

Culture in the Social Sciences

To the sociological culture is the set of habits, behaviors, and social practices learned in each new generation. What comes to the same factor mentioned above with respect to peoples and countries. What one generation learns is going to teach the other, which, in turn, passes that knowledge along, that was exactly what happened when the human being had not yet writing.

The oral transmission and the examples passed on by the older were creating the customs.

Organizational Culture

Use today the term “organizational culture” is also to define the set of standards, rules, conditions and standards within a company or organization. With the pursuit of total quality, virtually all companies have an “organizational culture” and by her drive to achieve higher result on the financial market.

Culture in the Philosophy

The culture is indispensable in the study of philosophy, where it should show up as inner attitude or synthesis of knowledge, and should serve for the study of the manifestations of the human in contrast with nature or the natural behavior (that is, outside the society). Should always be a position of advocacy and improvement, leading to justifications that are satisfactory that are conducive to discussion and information.

Culture in Anthropology

The spirit and cultural soul of a people, is how culture is understood by anthropology. It is here of all of the standards developed by the human knowledge, from generation to generation. The culture of a community is the basic study to understand the cultural level of this community. Their manifestations and their ways of relationship will tell you on which level is this “cultural soul”.

Popular Culture

When it developed the concept of culture to human behavior, in the EIGHTEENTH century, there was a great differentiation between erudite culture and popular culture. Even today we can see this, when we treat, for example, music: there is classical music, composed by the great composers, and popular music, made for the large population.

Popular culture today can be divided into strands completely separate. If on the one hand we have what we call popular music, popular art, crafts, folk dances, we are referring to what you usually see in shows, film, television, theatre, dances etc.

But also we can refer to popular culture as folklore (from the English “folk” which means people and “lore” means knowledge), that is, the knowledge of the people.And the folklore, as popular culture will treat of the myths, legends and customs of a people, from their roots, many times there are there facts and ideas that already does not have more validity, as is the case of the Saci Pererê in our culture, or how our quermesses, that are no longer customary, serving only as the themes of the festivals, so celebrated in the past and today restricted to a period of maximum two months per year, just to honor the tradition.